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                                                                 Peru Facts & Static's

  PERUVIAN POLITICAL    
Background: Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - the first democratically elected president of Quechua ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency with promises to improve social conditions.
Common Name: Peru Local Official Name: Peru
Abbreviated Name: Republic of Peru Official Name: Republica del Peru
Official Script Name: Peru Local Common Name: Peru
Former Name: Peru Territory of: NA
Head of State: President Alan GARCIA Perez
Government Type: constitutional republic
Independence: 1821 July 28 (from Spain)
Constitution: 1993 December 31
National Holiday: Independence Day, 28 July
International Organization Participation: APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO
Administrative Divisions: 25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Dependent Areas: NA
Legal System: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage: 18 years
Executive, Legislative and Judicial Branches: Executive Branch: chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006) note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006, with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held April 2011 election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5% Legislative Branch: unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held April 2011) election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2 Judicial Branch: Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Party Leaders: Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF - a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple [Martha CHAVEZ Cossio]; Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC - a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes [Valentin PANIAGUA Corazoa]; Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Nationalist Party Uniting Peru (Partido Nacionalista Uniendo al Peru) or UPP - a coalition of Union for Peru (UPP) and Peruvian Nationalist Party (PNP) [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [David WAISMAN]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP - also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA [Alan GARCIA]
International Disputes: Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral law to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundary along the parallel of latitude to an equidistance line which favors Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru does not support Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Illicit Drugs: until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer; cultivation of coca in Peru fell 15% to 31,150 hectares between 2002 and the end of 2003; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa 
  PERUVIAN GEOGRAPHY    
Location of Peru: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Continent: South America Land Area Total: 1,285,220 sq km 
Region: Southern American Land Area Land: 1,280,000 sq km
Capitol City: Lima Land Area Water: 5,220 sq km
Latitude: 010 00 S Border Boundary Land: 5,536 km
Longitude: 076 00 W Border Boundary Coastline: 2,414 km 
Arable Land: 2.88 % Pastures: 0.00 %
Crops: 0.47 % Woodlands and Forests: 0.00
Highest Elevation: 6,768 m Location: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Lowest Elevation: 0 m Location: Pacific Ocean
Largest City in Peru: Lima Lima Largest City Population: 7,291,000
Threatened Species: 413
Environmental Issues: deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environmental Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protoco
Irrigated Land: 12,000
Bordering Countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km
Natural Resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Geographical Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Comparative Area of Peru: slightly smaller than Alaska
Peru's Geography: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; remote Lake McIntyre is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
  PERUVIAN CLIMATE    
General Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Natural Hazards: earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
  PERUVIAN ECONOMY    
Economic Overview: Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4 percent per year during the period 2002-2005, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, the TOLEDO administration remained unpopular in 2005, and unemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Economic growth will be driven by the Camisea natural gas megaproject and by exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products. Peru is expected to sign a free-trade agreement with the United States in early 2006.
 
GDP: $167,300,000,000 USD Currency: nuevo sol
GDP per Capita: $6,000 USD Currency Code: PEN
GDP Growth Rate: 6.40 %
Currency Exchange Rate History: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003), 3.5165 (2002), 3.5068 (2001)
GDP of Agriculture: 8.00 % GDP of Industry: 27.00 %
GDP of Services: 65.00 %  
Inflation Rate: 1.60 % Population in Poverty: 54.00 %
Unemployment Rate: 7.60 % Tourism: 944,000.00 visitors each year
Consumption by lowest 10%: 0.80 % Budget Revenue in USD: $21,870,000,000 USD
Consumption by upper 10%: 37.20 % Budget Expenditures in USD: $22,470,000,000 USD
Electricity Production: 22,680,000,000 kWh Electricity Exports: 0 kWh
Electricity Consumption: 21,090,000,000 kWh Electricity Imports: 0 kWh
Electricity Production by Source  
Fossil Fuel Electricity Production: 17.89% Nuclear Electricity Production: 0.00%
Hydro Electricity Production: 81.38% Other Electricity Production: 0.73%
Oil Production: 120,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Production: 560,000,000 cu m
Oil Consumption: 157,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Consumption: 910,000,000 cu m
Oil Exports: 49,000 barrels per day Natural Gas Exports: 0 cu m
Oil Imports: 0 barrels per day Natural Gas Imports: 0 cu m
Proven Oil Reserves: 370,000,000 barrels Proven Natural Gas Reserves: 247,100,000,000 cu m
External Debt: $30,940,000,000 USD Received in economic aid: $491,000,000 USD
  Donated in economic aid: $0 USD
Agricultural Products: coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish
Primary Industries: mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial Growth Rate: 6.90 %
Import Amount in USD: $12,150,000,000 USD - petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Import Partners: US 18.2%, China 8.5%, Brazil 8%, Ecuador 7.4%, Colombia 6.1%, Argentina 5.1%, Chile 5.1%, Venezuela 4.1%
Export Amount in USD: $15,950,000,000 USD - copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee
Export Partners: US 31.1%, China 10.8%, Chile 6.6%, Canada 5.9%, Switzerland 4.6%
GINI Index: 4,938.00%
Labor Force Number of People: 9,060,000
Labor Force by Occupations: agriculture: 9%, industry: 18%, services: 73%
  PERUVIA COMMUNICATIONS    
Radio Broadcast Stations: 859 Number of People with Radios: 6,650,000
Television Broadcast Stations: 13 Number of People with Televisions: 3,060,000
Number of People with Mainline Telephones: 2,250,500 Number of People with Mobile Phones: 5,583,000
Internet Service Providers: 269,981 Internet Users: 4,600,000
Internet Country Code: .pe Newspapers: 85
Two Letter Country Code: PE Weights and Measures:
Phone Country Code: 51 Electricity Voltage: 220 Volts
Telephone Systems: general assessment: adequate for most requirements domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations international: country code - 51; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); Pan American submarine cable
  PERUVIAN TRANSPORTATION    
Highways: 10,314 km Railways: 3,462 km
Gas And Oil Pipelines: 3,434 km Waterways: 8,808 km
Airports: 54 Heliports: 0
Motor Vehicles: 44 per 1,000 people CO2 Emissions: 29,258,000 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
  Per capita CO2 emissions: 1.20 Metric Tons of CO2 per year
Merchant Marines: total: 4 ships (1000 GRT or over) 38,954 GRT/62,255 DWT by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 1 foreign-owned: 1 (US 1) registered in other countries: 15 (Panama 15
Ports and Harbors: Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
  PERUVIAN PEOPLE    
Population: 28,302,603 people type - nationality Birth Rate: 20.48 births per 1,000 people
Population Density: 21.00 people per sq km Death Rate: 6.23 deaths per 1,000 people
Population Growth: 1.32% per year Fertility Rate per Women: 2.51 babies born per woman
Population Male 0-14: 4,456,195 Population Female 0-14: 4,300,233
Population Male 15-64: 9,078,123 Population Female 15-64: 8,961,981
Population Male 65+: 709,763 Population Female 65+: 796,308
Population 0-14: 30.90% Literacy Rate: 87.70%
Population 15-64: 63.70% Literacy rate of Males: 93.50%
Population 65+: 5.30% Literacy rate of Females: 82.10%
Population that is Male: 50.50 % Population that is Female: 49.50%
Life expectancy at birth in years: 69.84 years Infant mortality rate - baby deaths per 1000 births: 30.94 Babies die per 1,000 births
Life expectancy at birth for Males: 68.05 years Life expectancy at birth for Females: 71.71 years
Rate of AIDS/HIV infection: 0.50% Number of people living with AIDS or HIV: 82,000
Number of people who died of AIDS: 4,200
Disease Risk:
Diseases:
Net Migration Rate per 1,000 people: -1.01
Nationality: PERUVIAN
Ethnic Groups: Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3% 
Primary Language: Spanish
Other Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Primary Religion: Roman Catholic
Other Religions: Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3%
  PERUVIAN MILITARY    
Branches: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru; includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP)
Manpower Fit to Serve: 18 years
Manpower Available: 13,192,282 People
Manpower Fit to Serve: 10,216,928 People
Amount of Manpower Available each Year: 546,904 People per year
Expenditures: $0 USD per yea
Expenditures as a Percentage of GDP: 1.40
Note: Phrasebase uses a variety of sources when compiling the facts and information presented above. This information is continually updated throughout the year.

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